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"touchstart" : "mouseenter"; $(document).on(triggerevent + ".dropdown.uikit", "[data-prl-dropdown]", function(e) { var ele = $(this); if (!ele.data("dropdown")) { var dropdown = new Dropdown(ele, UI.Utils.options(ele.data( "prl-dropdown"))); if (triggerevent == "mouseenter" && dropdown.options.mode == "hover") { ele.trigger("mouseenter"); } } }); })(jQuery, jQuery.UIkit);; (function($, UI) { "use strict"; if (UI.support.touch) { $("html").addClass("prl-touch"); } var $win = $(window), $doc = $(document), Offcanvas = { show: function(element) { element = $(element); if (!element.length) return; var doc = $("html"), bar = element.find(".prl-offcanvas-bar:first"), dir = bar.hasClass("prl-offcanvas-bar-flip") ? -1 : 1, scrollbar = dir == -1 && $win.width() < window.innerWidth ? 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$element.attr("href") : false }, options); this.element = $element; $element.on("click", function(e) { e.preventDefault(); Offcanvas.show($this.options.target); }); this.element.data("offcanvas", this); }; OffcanvasTrigger.offcanvas = Offcanvas; UI["offcanvas"] = OffcanvasTrigger; $doc.on("click.offcanvas.uikit", "[data-prl-offcanvas]", function(e) { e.preventDefault(); var ele = $(this); if (!ele.data("offcanvas")) { var obj = new OffcanvasTrigger(ele, UI.Utils.options( ele.attr("data-prl-offcanvas"))); ele.trigger("click"); } }); })(jQuery, jQuery.UIkit);; (function($) { "use strict"; $.fn.jAccordion = function() { var $this = $(this); $this.find("section").each(function(idx) { var section = $(this); if (idx === 0) section.addClass('active').find( 'div.acc-content').slideDown(); section.find('a.head').on("click", function() { var handle = $(this); handle.parent().toggleClass('active'); if (handle.parent().hasClass('active')) { handle.next('div.acc-content').slideDown(); } else { handle.next('div.acc-content').slideUp(); } return false; }); }); }; })(jQuery);; (function($) { $.fn.jflickrfeed = function(settings, callback) { settings = $.extend(true, { flickrbase: 'http://api.flickr.com/services/feeds/', feedapi: 'photos_public.gne', limit: 20, qstrings: { lang: 'en-us', format: 'json', jsoncallback: '?' }, cleanDescription: true, useTemplate: true, itemTemplate: '', itemCallback: function() {} }, settings); var url = settings.flickrbase + settings.feedapi + '?'; var first = true; for (var key in settings.qstrings) { if (!first) url += '&'; url += key + '=' + settings.qstrings[key]; first = false; } return $(this).each(function() { var $container = $(this); var container = this; $.getJSON(url, function(data) { $.each(data.items, function(i, item) { if (i < settings.limit) { if (settings.cleanDescription) { var regex = /<p>(.*?)<\/p>/g; var input = item.description; if (regex.test( input)) { item.description = input.match( regex)[ 2] if (item.description != undefined) item.description = item.description .replace( '<p>', '').replace( '</p>', ''); } } item['image_s'] = item.media .m.replace('_m', '_s'); item['image_t'] = item.media .m.replace('_m', '_t'); item['image_m'] = item.media .m.replace('_m', '_m'); item['image'] = item.media .m.replace('_m', ''); item['image_b'] = item.media .m.replace('_m', '_b'); delete item.media; if (settings.useTemplate) { var template = settings.itemTemplate; for (var key in item) { var rgx = new RegExp( '{{' + key + '}}', 'g'); template = template.replace( rgx, item[ key ]); } $container.append( template) } settings.itemCallback.call( container, item ); } }); if ($.isFunction(callback)) { callback.call(container, data); } }); }); } })(jQuery); (function(a) { a.fn.jqinstapics = function(b) { var c = { user_id: null, access_token: null, count: 10 }; var d = a.extend(c, b); return this.each(function() { var b = a(this), c = "https://api.instagram.com/v1/users/" + d.user_id + "/media/recent?access_token=" + d.access_token + "&count=" + d.count + "&callback=?"; a.getJSON(c, function(c) { a.each(c.data, function(c, d) { var e = a("<a/>", { href: d.link, target: "_blank" }).appendTo(b), f = a("<img/>", { src: d.images.thumbnail .url }).appendTo(e); if (d.caption) { f.attr("title", d.caption .text) } }) }); if (d.user_id == null || d.access_token == null) { b.append( "<li>Please specify a User ID and Access Token, as outlined in the docs.</li>" ) } }) } })(jQuery); (function($) { "use strict"; $.fn.fitVids = function(options) { var settings = { customSelector: null }; if (!document.getElementById('fit-vids-style')) { var div = document.createElement('div'), ref = document.getElementsByTagName('base')[0] || document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0], cssStyles = '&shy;<style>.fluid-width-video-wrapper{width:100%;position:relative;padding:0;}.fluid-width-video-wrapper iframe,.fluid-width-video-wrapper object,.fluid-width-video-wrapper embed {position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;}</style>'; div.className = 'fit-vids-style'; div.id = 'fit-vids-style'; div.style.display = 'none'; div.innerHTML = cssStyles; ref.parentNode.insertBefore(div, ref); } if (options) { $.extend(settings, options); } return this.each(function() { var selectors = ["iframe[src*='player.vimeo.com']", "iframe[src*='youtube.com']", "iframe[src*='youtube-nocookie.com']", "iframe[src*='kickstarter.com'][src*='video.html']", "object", "embed" ]; if (settings.customSelector) { selectors.push(settings.customSelector); } var $allVideos = $(this).find(selectors.join(',')); $allVideos = $allVideos.not("object object"); $allVideos.each(function() { var $this = $(this); if (this.tagName.toLowerCase() === 'embed' && $this.parent('object').length || $this.parent( '.fluid-width-video-wrapper').length ) { return; } var height = (this.tagName.toLowerCase() === 'object' || ($this.attr( 'height') && !isNaN( parseInt($this.attr( 'height'), 10)))) ? parseInt($this.attr('height'), 10) : $this.height(), width = !isNaN(parseInt($this.attr( 'width'), 10)) ? parseInt($this .attr('width'), 10) : $this.width(), aspectRatio = height / width; if (!$this.attr('id')) { var videoID = 'fitvid' + Math.floor( Math.random() * 999999); $this.attr('id', videoID); } $this.wrap( '<div class="fluid-width-video-wrapper"></div>' ).parent( '.fluid-width-video-wrapper').css( 'padding-top', (aspectRatio * 100) + "%"); $this.removeAttr('height').removeAttr( 'width'); }); }); }; })(window.jQuery || window.Zepto); </script>

The Exposure Triangle of Shutter, Aperture, and ISO

Graphic image depicting the exposure triangle of photography including the settings of aperture, ISO, and shutter speed by Cramer Imaging When I started studying photography, I had no idea that there were technical aspects to using a camera.  Technical aspects which can be the difference between an OK shot and an amazing photograph.  I quickly learned about manipulating the shutter speed, the aperture, and the ISO for proper image exposure.  Learning these basics has drastically improved my photography.

Graphic image depicting the exposure triangle of photography including the settings of aperture, ISO, and shutter speed by Cramer Imaging

Shutter Speed


Shutter speed is rather easy to define.  It is how long the shutter of the camera is open and allows light into the sensor.  Pushing the shutter button opens up the shutter and it will release as programed to do so.  Short shutter speeds can freeze motion while long shutter speeds can blur moving objects.  Each side has its own merits and uses in photography.

Shutter speed controls how long light is allowed to strike the sensor for.

Aperture


Aperture is best described as the diaphragm of camera.  It can act as a choking point for how much light gets through to the sensor while the shutter is open.  Wide open apertures let in lots of light and result in a shallow plane of focus (or depth of field).  This mostly means that the background is blurred out of focus.  Tightly closed apertures result in little light making it through to the sensor.  The depth of field is far deeper and lots more of the background will be in focus.

Aperture controls how much light is allowed to strike the sensor.

ISO


ISO is the abbreviation for International Organization for Standardization.  This means little as this organization is responsible for more than camera exposures.  What does this term really mean for my camera?

ISO for modern cameras is the digital version of what used to be film speed.  It also used to be known as ASA (American Standards Association).  Older cameras will display this term instead of ISO.  The film speed describes how light sensitive the original camera film was.  The more sensitive the film, the better the exposure in low light settings.  The less sensitive the film, the better the exposure in bright light situations.

ISO controls how sensitive the sensor is to the light that strikes it.

How They Work Together


Aperture, shutter speed, and ISO act like axes of a graph.  Aperture would be the x-axis, shutter speed is the y-axis, and ISO becomes the z-axis.  Each has a particular setting or value in order to generate a properly exposed photograph.  No graph is complete without all the coordinates and no photograph is complete without all the elements of exposure.

As with coordinates on a graph, if you alter one setting, you alter the entire exposure.

If one particular setting cannot be altered for one reason or another, then the other two settings can change in order to create what is known as equivalent exposures.  One such example of not altering a setting is when shooting photos in fluorescent light where the shutter speed must be some multiple of 1/60th of a second in order to catch the full spectrum of the light cycle.

When properly attuned, these elements of an exposure can create amazing and powerful images together. Below are examples of what the combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and ISO can yield when properly applied in photography.

The combination of small aperture, fast shutter speed, high ISO is a rarity which would be useful in a night club or at a play where the light is dim and no flash is allowed.  I don't have an example photograph of this kind.

Conclusion


A properly exposed photograph has three elements: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.  These camera settings control how much light is let in, how long it is let in for, and how sensitive the sensor is to the light it receives.  A little attention to this matter will drastically improve your photography as you are starting out.  Once you have mastered these basics, then you are ready for some real fun and exploration in the world of photography.


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